.
 
 
No. Name No. Name
       
1. Blood Pressure 5. Peripheral Vascular Disease
       
2. Cholesterol 6. Stress
       
3. Diabetes 7. Stroke
       
4. Obesity 8. Vascular Diseases
       
 
     
 
Overview (Blood Pressure):
 

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is the chronic state of elevated pressure in the arteries. Blood pressure is produced by the flow of blood in the arteries. There is no "perfect" blood pressure reading. However, there is a range of "normal" blood pressure reading. Generally, a reading that is less than 140 over 90 indicates that one should not worry. If either or both numbers are equal to or greater than 140 over 90 for an extended period of time, it is said to have high blood pressure, or hypertension.

Overview (Blood Pressure)Hypertension is dangerous because it makes the heart to work extra hard. This strain may contribute to heart attacks and stroke. When the heart is forced to work harder for an extended period of time, it tends to enlarge. A slightly enlarged heart can function well, but a significantly enlarged heart cannot. High blood pressure also causes damage to the arteries thereby leading to arterial disease.

Mild cases of hypertension can be treated through behavior alterations like changes in regular diet and increasing exercise. More severe cases of hypertension require medications like diuretics and beta-blockers. Diuretics rid the body of excess fluids and salt. Beta-blockers reduce the heart rate and the heart's output of blood.

Risk Factors:

You may be at greater risk for high blood pressure if you:
 » Have a history of hypertension in your family
 » Have a pre-existing condition such as diabetes or kidney disease
 » Are a male
 » Are of African-American descent
 » Are over 35 years of age
 » Smoke
 » Are obese
 » Are taking oral contraceptives
 » Frequently consume alcoholic beverages
 » Lead a sedentary lifestyle

Causes:

Most people have essential hypertension that has no identifiable cause. Some think it may be due to genetic predisposition. The probability of developing this condition increases with the increase in age.

In approximately 5% of patients, a secondary cause exists. Secondary cause includes certain types of kidney disease, abnormal functioning of certain glands (adrenal glands, thyroid gland, and parathyroid glands), chronic intake of certain substances and medications (e.g., alcohol, steroids).

 
Diagnosis (Blood Pressure):
 

High blood pressure usually does not show major symptoms. Your organs and tissues can be damaged by high blood pressure without even showing any symptoms.

Diagnosis (Blood Pressure)Occasionally, if blood pressure reaches severe levels, you may experience the following symptoms:

 » Headache
 » Blurry or double vision
 » Abdominal pain
 » Chest pain
 » Shortness of breath
 » Dizziness

High blood pressure is often diagnosed during a visit to a doctor. Blood pressure is measured using a cuff around an arm and a device called a sphygmomanometer. If the blood pressure reading is high, regular blood pressure checks are repeated to avoid further risk. If there are three or more readings over 140/90, one will be diagnosed with high blood pressure.

If the blood pressure is not measured correctly, the readings obtained may be artificially high. Several steps ensure that the measured blood pressure truly represents the patient’s blood pressure:

 » Patients should sit with their arms supported at heart level.
 » Patients should not smoke or ingest caffeine for 30 minutes prior to blood pressure measurement.
 » Patients should sit down for at least 5 minutes before blood pressure is measured.
 » The bladder (inflatable part) of the blood pressure cuff should encircle at least 80% of the arm.
    A large cuff should be used for patients with thick arms.
 » Two or more readings should be taken at least 2 minutes apart.

 
Treatments (Blood Pressure):
 

Several studies have confirmed that treating patients to lower their blood pressure significantly decreases their risk for developing disabled and potentially deadly medical conditions.

The aim of treatment for most patients is to lower the systolic blood pressure below 140 mm Hg and the diastolic blood pressure below 90 mm Hg. For Diabetic patients it is been suggested that blood pressure should be lowered even further, to a systolic pressure below 130 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure below 85 mm Hg.

Treatment for high blood pressure involves life-style modification and drug therapy (or pharmacological therapy).

Life style modification
In some patients, particularly those whose blood pressure is moderately high, life style modifications alone may achieve treatment goals. Patients who require pharmacological therapy may reduce the doses of medications through life style modification. The following modifications in diet and physical activity should be discussed with a doctor or health care provider.

 » Weight loss.
    Obese patients can reduce blood pressure by losing weight. Gradual weight loss through modified     calorie intake and increased physical activity is a good approach. A goal of losing 10-15 pounds is     reasonable for many patients.

 » Physical activity.
    Regular, average aerobic exercise can modestly decrease blood pressure and has many other     advantageous effects. A program of gradually increased activity is most prudent, such as taking a     brisk, 20-30 minute walk, 3-5 times weekly. People suffering from chest pain (angina) or prone to     heart disease should talk to their doctor before starting an exercise program.

 » Salt (sodium chloride) restriction.
    Excessive salt intake can add to hypertension in some people. Even modest restriction of salt may     decrease blood pressure. Generally, doctors advise those with high blood pressure to avoid the     intake of salty food and to limit daily sodium in take no more than approximately 2.4 grams.     (Doctors use the words "salt" and "sodium" interchangeably.)

 » Limited alcohol consumption.
    Moderate alcohol intake (one or two glasses of an alcoholic beverage a day) does not appear to     cause hypertension; however, chronic heavy alcohol use elevates blood pressure. This is the most     common reversible cause of high blood pressure. Therefore, hypertension patients who drink     alcohol excessively should discuss this problem with their health care provider and reduce their     consumption of alcohol.
 
Although we have attempted to provide you with the causes, diagnosis, remedies, and treatments for the above mentioned diseases. We suggest you to consult your personal physician by providing your medical history for getting information for any of these diseases.
 

 
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